THE FIRST ERA
According to the information obtained from archaeological studies, it is known that high cultural civilizations have lived in the Çukurova region since ancient times.
The apparent history of Çukurova starts with the Kingdom of Kitvanza. In this subject, information was obtained from inscriptions belonging to Hittite State. This Kingdom is BC. In 1335, it was under the protection of the Hittites.
-Hitit BCE Between the years 1191 – 1189, many small kingdoms emerged with the destruction of the west. The Kingdom of Kue, the Assyrians, the Kingdom of Cilicia, the Persians, the Macedonians, the Selokids, the Pirates of Çukurova, and the Romans, respectively. It can be said that Çukurova and Adana developed during the Romans. Because the large bridges, roads and irrigation facilities made here in Çukurova, particularly Adana, has become a highly developed and important trade center. With the collapse of the Roman Empire, the era of the First Age was closed.
– After the Romans in the Middle Ages Byzantines, Arabs, Thessalonians, Armenians, Egypt Turkish Mamluk State, Ramazanoğulları dominated here.
According to the Ramazanoğulları Foundation, during this period; mosques, mosques and madrasas, with and without boarding schools and other cultural institutions, institutions providing health and social services have been made, large zoning initiatives have been made.
– At the end of the New Era and in the Near Age, the Ottoman Empire was dominant. (1517 – 1918)
-19 y.y. Britain, France and Russia, who have taken all kinds of political struggles to destroy the Ottoman Empire, helped Mehmet Ali Pasha, the governor of Egypt, who rebelled against the Ottoman Empire. After a short period of time (1840), the Ottoman Empire was captured again. In 1867, the Administrative Organization was established and turned into a Adana province. On 24 December 1914, the French entered Adana under the terms of the treaty. Then, on October 20, 1921, with the Treaty of Ankara, on 5 January 1922, the French had to leave Adana.CLOSE AGE
– Source of the name
For the first time, the oldest written records of Adana are found in the rock inscriptions of the Hittites, one of the most rooted civilizations of the Anatolian peninsula. It is known as Boğazköy texts. In a Hittite tablet dated to 1650 years, it is referred to as URU ADANIA, ADANA REGION. The name ADANA has a history of at least 3640 years, even if only this tablet will be considered.
– In the ancient times, the coast of Seyhan River is covered with plenty of willow trees and the recognition of this tree as an AND tree by the Mesopotamian tribes is also believed to be effective in the formation of the local name.
– According to another view, the name of the Storm God ADAD (Tesup), which is believed to live in forested regions, is believed to have been named as the name of Adana, the region of which is composed of the Taurus Mountains and the Seyhan River.
-ADAD is the Storm God of the Hittites, the Syrian and Mesopotamian tribes in TESUP.
It is highly likely that these groups will have to take the thought, name and writing styles from each other. Storm God, rain, abundance in the rain brought rain in this region as a very popular, counted as a God, and this region which is worthy of him, also called URU ADANIA, also called the area of ADAN.
The Phoenicians who were influenced by the -itites gave the name of ADONIS to the God of Agriculture. ADONIS means “EFENDI”. This region with the rich trade and rich forests and lowland products with the development of the Phoenicians, this region ADONIS’in place to say that has become a piece.
– Every tribe, state and every civilization who came to this region with their names gave names to the towns within their cultural understanding and values and explained the meaning of the names. This region was called Adana in Homer’s Iliad.
– The tribes coming from the west tell Adana and their sons, Adanos and Sarosa, founded Adana by their own deities Uranus. Adana is the place of ADONIS, the God of Storm, according to the eastern tribes.
All these beliefs belong to ancient times. Especially in the Middle Ages M.S. From the 7th century on, the introduction of the Islamic armies into this region has made new definitions in new insights. One of the Arab historians, Ibnul Adim, tries to prove the name of Adana by the work “History of Aleppo” which he wrote from EZENE, the grandson of Yasef. If the Middle East is a region of prophets and many old prophets have lived in the present Anatolian borders, it is easy to understand how this explanation developed.
– Karçinli-Zade Süleyman Şükrü Bey’s book “Seyahat’ül-Kübra” in the later centuries argues that the old name of Adana was “BATANA” and that “ADANA” was translated in the period of Islam. He also adds that this was inspired by the verse “Fi azeneil arz”.
-DANUNA’s name is BC. it is a known fact that the living tribes are used for this region. Also available in records found.
It is also known that the Danunans are powerful enough to give names and shares to the local rules. It is also very likely that the name of DANUNA has changed over the centuries and then it is BATANA and then ADANA.
-The Turks who came to the region, over the high Taurus and the southern direction of the region “Çukurova” to give the name of the inspiration given to people is a good example of the inspiration. This fertile land that descends to the Mediterranean with a very sweet slope in a flat view after the Taurus Mountains is known as “ÇUKUROVA” for the Turks. It has been known to this day.
– Cilicia and Silica (Cilicia), which are the historical names of the region, are given due to Silex, which is rich in Kilkin, lime and again very abundant in this region. In other words, the region is named according to geographical characteristics.
The inspiration of the fertility of the land and the mountains of ADANA-EDENA and snowy mountains give this inspiration.
The name of the region, which has been continuously mentioned since the “Epic of Gilgamesh” from the Sumerians, has followed a multicolored development by connecting to numerous sources and countless events.
Adana in the administration of the Ottomans have recorded many different spellings. Some of these are: Erde-na, Edene, Ezene, and even Azana, as old, in the old books, records and edicts.
– As the mandatory tribes were placed in the region from 1865 onwards, the name of Adana was placed in the official records as ADANA.-Adana’s Occupation and the War of Independence
World War I, which caused great losses, emerged between the European States and Europe, which started to fight each other for political and economic superiority.
The short-term struggle spread to all continents and the Ottoman Empire was dragged into this war. In the end, the empire collapsed, its land was fragmented, and the homeland remained under the invasion of the enemy.
-The Ottoman State, which was forced to fight against many states on five fronts, was withdrawn by leaving many of the imperial lands to the enemy with the Treaty of Mondros. During this period, the Turkish Union, which remained on the Syrian front, was taken to Aleppo under the rule of Mustafa Kemal, who was the Commander of the Lightning Armies at that front.
-The grand vizier Izzet Pasha, at that time the group commander Liman Von Sanders’tan (German commander) at the hands of all the group command and coordination authority Mustafa Kemal Pasha was transferred to the hands of the administration and to perform these handover operations on October 31, 1918 Mustafa Kemal Pasha He came to Adana.
-Liman Von Sanders Pasha, “defeated. For us, everything is done” in response to the word, Mustafa Kemal Pasha who took the power “War may be finished for allies, but what interests us is the war, the war of our own independence, but now begins,” gave the money.
The years of struggle that these words summed up and emphasized continued until 1922, even until the end of political agreements, until 1923.
-Mustafa Kemal Pasha stayed in Adana on October 31, 1918 for 11 days, he examined the state of the people and the public and reported this to the General Staff.
-These telegrams included not only the current situation but also forward thinking and warnings.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who telegraphed to the government and prime minister of the time that the British would be fired if he was attempting to invade Iskenderun, he also gave an order similar to his subordinate commanders.
On the historical side, this first order from Adana is the first order of the Turkish War of Independence. As a matter of fact, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who came to Adana again on March 15, 1923, proved this situation in front of society and history with the following words: “In this country, the first sense-i attempt of this market is embodied in this beautiful Adana.”
-The telegrams sent from Istanbul to Istanbul had no positive effect, and soon the Lightning Armies Group and 7th Army Headquarters were abolished and Mustafa Kemal Pasa was called to Istanbul.
– The Armenians responded to the decision of the Istanbul Government on 23 November 1918, which required the evacuation of Adana and its surroundings. A telegram that protested the situation and highlighted the grave events that such an operation would create was sent to the Minister of the Interior.
Shortly after, the occupation forces entered Çukurova from Mersin Port, took control of all key points and then occupied Adana. During this occupation, all the symbols, emblems, signs and signs belonging to the Turks were destroyed and systematically.
-Another process which was implemented in a very planned and definite manner by the French occupation forces was the placement of the Armenians in the regions of Adana, Çukurova and its vicinity. In 1915, during the First World War, the Armenians who worked as the fifth branch within the country, killing and torturing the Turkish people who rebelled during the First World War, and helping the Russians, were forced to migrate to Syria with the 1915 Relocation Law.
-In 1918, the French occupied Adana and Çukurova, as well as Armenian troops in their own troops, they brought 70 thousand Armenians from Syria to Adana, 12 thousand to Dörtyol and 8 thousand to Saimbeyli. More than 50 thousand Armenians were brought to the vicinity of Antep and Maraş. All these efforts were to rebuild the Armenian Kingdom, which would serve as an Avrupa outpost görev in this region, as it was during the First Crusade.
-In 1918-1919 there was a period of terror and murder in Adana. Among these, the events such as Abdiağa farm events, inner city murders, the crucifixion of the Turks in Taşköprü and the torturing of whipping and torturing have become events that will not emerge from the society’s consciousness and memory.
Between these terror and oppression, the Turks in Adana and the region were organized and formed the Cilician National Forces.
-Cukurova, divided into regions, the militia forces and commanders were assigned to each region and the entire region has been under the control of this national resistance and struggle organization.
– Since February 1920, the national forces began to win victories against the enemy and each victory provided a better organization and higher moral strength.- In 1920, the French attacked the Taurus. As a result, on May 27, 1920, the French army commander, Mehil, was taken captive by the national forces. The event, known as “Karboğazı Incident”, is the first political victory of the Kuvay-ı Milliye. Following this, on 28 May 1920 the French withdrew to the Mersin-Adana line and the northern Çukurova (Kozan and other mountainous regions) were completely liberated. In the plain and plains, the Armenians increased the persecution and violence and committed countless murders.
On July 10, 1920, a great deal of violence and genocide against the Turks was attempted by the Armenians and as a result of this operation, tens of thousands of Turks fled to the Turkish Taurus. This movement, which lasted four days, was named as “How Many” in history.
On August 5, 1920, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Fevzi Bey (Cakmak) and MPs came to Pozanti and made the Pozantı Congress by making it a province. The Turks, who had the greatest resistance, suffered great losses. Despite this, they managed to defeat the French at the end of November 1920. As a result, France officially recognized the government of the Parliament and went to peace.
-Turkish-French Peace Treaty, 20 October 1921 was made in Ankara.
In accordance with this treaty, on 5 January 1922, the French were completely withdrawn from Çukurova (taking the Armenians they brought with them). The Armenians who could not go with the French or who were indigenous also fled the region. 120 thousand of them went to Syria again, 30 thousand went to Cyprus or Istanbul.
With the aim of celebrating the liberation of -5 January 1922, a very large flag was drawn between the Great Clock and the Grand Mosque, and this event was repeated during the days of liberation of the province. The flag has become the symbol of Adana.
-Adana and Çukurova people joined the national forces and collided on the other fronts of the country and took part in the struggle to rescue their homeland from the enemy.