– The origin of the name of Ankara is not
known. According to the rumors, which are not based on documents, the first name
mentioned in the history is given by Galatians and it is the Greek meaning “anchor”.
This name changed with time Ancyre, Enguriye, Enguru, Angara, Angora and finally
– The capital of Tektosag in the Galilean period, Ankara was the capital of the provincial organization in the Roman period, an important city where the emperors stayed in the Byzantine period and the center of the Anatolian Province in the Ottoman period.
Although the first foundation date is not known precisely, prehistoric traces found in the studies around the city indicate that the city was established during the periods when humanity was established.
-The investigations of researchers and researchers show that Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians and Galatians lived in Ankara. Although the city’s built-in layout is very old, its history can only be traced from the Hittite period.
-In the excavations carried out in Bogazkoy (Hattusha) within the boundaries of the province of Çorum in the east of Ankara, important clues about the city were obtained. According to some foreign historians, Ankuwa, which is commonly found in Hittite artifacts, is probably located in the city of Ankara.
– It is seen that Phrygians dominate the region after the tritites. According to a legend in ancient sources, Ankara was founded by the great Phrygian king Midas. In the city center excavations, exact information about the Phrygians was obtained. After the invasion of Kimmer who played a primary role in the destruction of the Phrygian state, Ankara came into the hands of the Lydians. But this dominance ended very quickly after the Persian king Kyros, together with all Anatolia, captured Ankara. After two centuries, Alexander the Great ended the Persian rule in Anatolia.
– After the Emperor Augustos took Ankara definitively, it became a province; temples, markets, roads and waterways.
-Ankara was under the domination of the Byzantine Empire between 334 and 1073 years. During this time he became an important center of Christianity in Anatolia. VII. After the Sassanian raids in the 19th century, the Arabs held the city for a while.
-Ankara’s fate was determined by the Battle of Malazgirt which resulted in the defeat of the Byzantine armies in 1071 by the Seljuk Sultan Alpaslan. As a result of this victory, the city was captured by the Turks. It is extremely important for Ankara to get into the hands of the Turks. Because Ankara Castle was an important military service. On the other hand, the region, starting from the Aegean port cities to the Mesopotamia and other eastern countries, was also rich in terms of natural resources.
– The most brilliant period of Ankara is the time of Alâaddin Keykubat. In this period, the city was fortified in military terms and the mosque and madrasa were built with religious and scientific works.
– Sultan of Sultan II. During the time of Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev, the city was invaded by the Mongols, and despite all efforts, the invasion could not be prevented. Sultan Gıyasettin Keyhüsrev took shelter in Ankara Castle against the Mongol attacks. At the end of the Mongol attacks, the Seljuk state was weak and this situation continued until Anatolia was under the rule of the Ilkhanians. Ankara has been governed by the governors of the Ilhans and later by the sons of Eretna. In 1354, Suleyman Pasha, the son of Orhan Gazi, added the city to the Ottoman country. Until the time of Yıldırım Beyazıt era, there was no significant event. After the Battle of Ankara, the fate of the city has changed. When Timur left Ankara, Yıldırım Beyazıt’s son Mehmet Çelebi declared his sultanate and thus took Ankara.
– Under the rule of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent, a provincial organization was established in Anatolia and Ankara became the center of one of these Anatolian provinces. City 17th century. they fell into the hands of the rebels during the Celali Uprising. II. Ankara, which came under the rule of the Egyptian governor Mehmet Ali Pasha, who had rebelled against Mahmut, was once again captured by the Ottomans and remained an Ottoman province without any invasion.
– With the loss of most of the Rumeli provinces at the end of the Balkan War, the Turkish borders in the west came very close to Istanbul. The seizure of the Bosphorus was also very easy. For this reason, it is considered to be dangerous and inconvenient to stay in Istanbul and move the capital to another city in Anatolia. During the war years, the most attacks were coming from the west, and Ankara was far away from these attacks. On December 27, 1919, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, lant The Representation of the Committee of the Defense of Anatolia and Rumelia yayımlan came to Ankara and announced with a communiqué published on 29 December 1919 that the meeting will be held in Ankara. On this date, after 23 April 1920