About Artvin History
Since the ancestors of
the Turks, who adopted the nomadic lifestyle, developed oral literature instead
of written literature, we are now able to learn about the prehistoric periods of
Artvin from the works of Iranian and Byzantine sources or from the works of
today’s researchers on Erzurum or Kars.
Artvin and its environs is a region of very deep and rich civilizations. Due to the lack of soil structure and the distance from science centers, archaeological studies in scientific and planned manner could not be carried out. Despite this, Prof. The excavations of İbrahim KÖKTEN in the vicinity of Kars and Çıldır Lake have found dolmen and menhir ruins. In 1965, wall paintings on deer hunting were found on the rocks at the border of Camibý Village on the eastern skirt of Ala Mountain in the southern part of Kars and in the northern part of the Aras River.
The copper axes found in the Yusufeli and Şavşat regions between the years of 1933 and 1955 are thought to belong to 3000-4000 BC.
Bronze axes were found in the same area. It is known to belong to 3000-2000 years.
Artvin and its environs had begun the prehistoric times as the period of copper-bronze iron, starting from the polished stone age. The human traces of the polished stone age dating from 10 thousand to 8 thousand BC give the impression that people lived in Artvin in these ages. The found metal objects indicate that the prehistoric cycles were in order.
First States and Invasions in Arctic
The first tribe that dominated Artvin was the Hurris who was accepted as the ancestors of the Turks. Starting from 2000 BC, Huriler established the site states in and around Artvin. Hittite King II. Murşit BC Art.
Urartu, the descendant of the Hurrians, established a correct Anatolian-based state, whose capital was Van, whose income was based on agriculture-stockbreeding-trade. They extended the northern borders to Artvin. However, they could not withstand the pressure of the Scythians who had migrated from the East and were destroyed. This time Artvin was on the western border of the Caucasus-based Scythian state.
The ancient Greek historian Herodotus was the pioneer of this state age, which he called Scythian. Scythians, who invented the wheel, made the first brain surgery in history, domesticated the horse, captured Artvin and started to use this area as a military base.
In the post-Scythian period, the family called Arsaklar dominated Artvin. Believing in the shamanistic religious teaching, this dynasty accepted the religion of Islam by staying in Byzantine influence in 350 AD. Then they came under the domination of Byzantium. In 575, when Iranian King Darivs I attacked Byzantine, Caspian Turks (11) benefited from Coruh.
-Hz.Osman period, the army armies commander of the Islamic Son of Habib defeated Byzantium and captured Savsat-Ardanuc-Artvin. Although they wanted to advance to the Caspian Sea, they were stopped by the Khazars who accepted Judaism. The people of Artvin, who joined the Khazars during the Umayyads, resisted the Islamic armies. In 786, the Abbasid Caliph Harun Reşit linked the Çoruh region to Baghdad.
853-1023 Artvin Bagratlar and Sac was founded by two Abbasids. When the sac-emirate was destroyed, Artvin was again seized by Byzantium. In the meantime, the head of the established Seljuk Empire established in Iran, Tuğrul Bey sent his brother Çağrı Bey to the west in 1018 for the discovery of Anatolia. 1040 The Seljuks, who defeated the Ghaznavids in the Dandanakan War and came to the state status, came to the border of Artvin with the 1048 Pasinler War.
-Alparslan 1064’de Georgia take the expedition to take the Coruh tribes. Upon the death of Alparslan, Georgian King Gorgi Artvin, who received help from Byzantium, regained his hand. But when it was defeated by Melikşah in 1081, Erzurum-Bayburt ’Kars-based Saltukoğlu principality, which included Çoruhüuda with the support of Melikşah, was founded. Accelerate the spread of the Turkish population to Artvin.
After the collapse of the Great Seljuk State, Artvin was attached to Atabeylik, the son of Azerbaijan-based Ildeniz. In 1263, Kubilay conquered Artvin and added the province to İlhanlı. Sark is the Kipchak Turk in 1265 and established the Çıldır Horseback.
While the Akkoyunlu ruler Uzun Hasan Çoruh conducted three campaigns between the years of 1448-1463-1466, the Ottoman ruler II. Mehmed was defeated in Oltukbeli battle and entered the Safavids in 1502 during his slimming.
Ottoman Serhat City
– The documents belonging to the stages of the Ottoman Empire are not sufficient. However, II. It is known that Mehmed captured the Greek Cypriot State and seized the coastline of the Black Sea region from the coastal area of Artvin Province. In the meantime, Artvin-Yusufeli-Ardanuç-Borcka was in the hands of Çıldır Atabeyliğinin.
-I. Selim Trabzon governor of Georgia during his campaign in the southwest of Batumi was captured by the South Fortress. The name of this fortress with the name of Selim I. Selim sancağa Borçka-Hopa and Artvin connected. 20 years after the Çaldıran expedition Erzurum Beylerbeyi Mehmed Khan Yusufeli had made raids around. Ardanuç Atabeyi II. When Keykavus rebelled, Sultan Selim I’s son, Sultan I. Suleyman, commissioned the second vizier Kara Ahmet Pasha to suppress the rebellion. With the second campaign of Kara Ahmet Pasha, the first Livane Sanjak named Pert-Eğekte was founded. Between 1549-51 the Ardanuç region between Şavşat and Yusufeli was founded by two years. Keykavus had his hands. On June 13, 1551, Erzurum Beylerbeyi Iskender Pasha conquered Ardanuc Castle and added this region to the Ottoman country. II. Keykavus fled to Iran.
-1627 in the Ottoman Empire, which is an important center of Acaristan, the city of Batumi III. It was founded in 1703 by Hasan Pasha, one of the viziers of Ahmed period.
Artvin and its environs, along with the province of Çıldır, remained under the rule of the Ottoman Empire for about 250 years. 1828 The Ottoman Russian war and the Edirne Treaty signed as a result of the war. According to the agreement, part of the province of Cildir lost Ottoman. In contrast, Artvin-Borcka-Ardanuc-Savsat-Yusufeli remained in the hands of the Ottoman Empire.
-1854-56 In the Crimean War, Ottoman Empire attacked Şevket-İl fortress near Batumi with the support it received from England. When the war began, about 600 Artvin volunteers gave successful battles in the defense of Kars.
With the Russians’ plan to land in the south and to create the world empire, the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-78 (93 War) came out. This war cost the people of Artvin region expensive. April 24 After Russia invaded Kars-Ardahan-Batumi, it began to move towards Turkish territory. On 2 May 1877, they martyred more than 800 soldiers. Against the Russians who captured Ardahan, the people of Artvin began to migrate east to Ardanuç and Şavşat.
Due to Suleyman Pasha, who had set up faulty lines in the Pipka Pass, the Russians drilled these lines and advanced into the Eastern Anatolia. He had to make an offer of Ottoman peace.
On March 3, 1878, the Ayestefanos peace was signed between the Ottoman Empire and Russia. which does not pay the compensation of 245.207.301 gold in the Ottoman Empire, has been obliged to give compensation to Russia to Kars-Ardahan-Batumi territory. This peace was thought against the interests of the European states. On 23 December 1978 Berlin Peace was signed. This peace and Elvire-i Selase called Kars-Ardahan-Batumi Russia passed into the hands.
On the 8th of February 1879, with the great Muhaide agreement signed between Ottoman and Russia, the Turks living in Kars-Ardahan-Batumi started to migrate to the west. As a result of the principle of nationalism brought by the real French Revolution and the Russians, which were applied by the Russians to descend to the south, where the Turks lived together for centuries, they called the loyal nation was one of the nations where we made the most bloody battles until World War I.
Artvin during the
National Struggle Period
In October 1917, when the Bolsheviks took over the government in Russia and overthrew the Romanof dynasty, the newly formed Soviet Russia withdrew from World War I and signed the Erzincan Armistice on 18 December 1917, and the Russian troops withdrew from Artvin and Şavşat in January 1918. Soviet Russia left the Kars-Ardahan-Batumi to the Ottoman Empire on March 3, 1918 when the Brest-Litovsk Agreement was signed with the states participating in the First World War. They had accepted a referendum for the annexation of these regions to the Ottoman Empire. Kazım Karabekir, 15 Corps, entered the Erzurum-Erzincan-Yerevan region. On June 18, 1918, the Ottoman Government, in agreement with the National Government of Georgia, prevented the claims in the provinces of Kars-Ardahan-Batumi.
-I. On October 30, 1918, the Navy Secretary Rauf ORBAY signed the Armistice of Mondros on behalf of the Ottoman Empire, defeated by the World War. One month after this cease-fire, on December 17, 1918, England occupied Batumi. After the Russian invasion of 1878-1918, the British invasion began. According to Article 5 of Mondros, militia was taken out of the arms of the occupying militia. British general Ravlinson Kazim Karabekir telegram to his army with the telegraph said he wanted to discharge, but he refused. On May 19, 1919, the Great Leader Mustafa Kemal Ataturk ignited the torch he discussed in Samsun with the Havza and Amasya Circular for the liberation of the enemy occupation of the Turkish homeland. With the Erzurum Congress gathered in East Anatolia on 23 July, the local people united the imperialist British and the pawns against the intentions of the Armenians.
-In the beginning of 1920 in Georgia, one of the Islamic Georgia and the other was founded in 1918 in the Batumi Association of Islamic Society called to Batumi to Georgia. Kazım Karabekir news of this event prevented the event. On 28 January 1920, it was decided to go public in Kars-Ardahan-Batumi with the National Pact decisions taken in the last Ottoman Deputies Assembly. The main reason for this decision was that the Turkish population was high in these lands. When the British occupation forces withdrew from Batumi and Artvin on 7 July 1920, the Georgian government invaded Batumi on 1 July 1920. They invaded Artvin and Şavşat on 25 July. During this occupation, M.Edip DİNÇ and Ahmet Akit Beyler from the Parliament of Batumi, 1129
the militia has exerted great efforts against the occupation. Mustafa Kemal, in his capacity as President of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, protested the invasion of Georgia by the Georgian government after the British, and then on 25 July, when Artvin and Şavşat were occupied.
On 17 January 1921, MEDİVANI, the President of Georgia, came to Ankara and forwarded his credentials to Mustafa Kemal. The first official note was given to the Embassy of Georgia by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. On 23 February, Artvin and Ardahan were to be evacuated. On 23 February 1921, the Embassy of the Government of Georgia notified the Ministry of Foreign Affairs that the abandonment of Ardahan and Artvin accidents was accepted by the Georgian government.
Since then, the Government of Georgia was withdrawn from Artvin-Ardanuç-Borçka and Şavşat. 45 years of bondage ended. Since March 7, 1921, the Turkish flag began to fluctuate in Artvin.
Artvin in the Republican Period
Between 1878-1918 and 1918-1921, Artvin-Borcka and Savsat accidents remained under the control of Russia-Armenian-British-Georgia were connected to Ardahan accident for 4 months starting from March 7, 1921. The new Turkish state’s first constitution, dated 20 January 1921 in the Organization, with the changes made on April 24, 1924, the organization of Liva-Sanjak removed Artvin became the province.
In June 1926, the Yusufeli Accident was transferred to Artvin by the law no. 877. In 1928, the Law no. These places were managed with the organization of Artvin province for nine years, and on June 1, 1933, according to the second article of Law no.
Difficulty of land conditions, the distance between the center of Artvin and the province of the province has caused some problems. During the visit of Prime Minister of the time İsmet İnönü to Artvin on 25 July 1935, the situation was communicated to him. The government on November 4, 1936, adopted by the Law No. 2885, the central Rize Çoruh province was removed. Artvin Center, Hopa, Borcka and Savsat accidents and before the Yusufeli accident was given to Erzurum and the Artvin Coruh Province organization was accepted.