About Bilecik History
The life of the city in ancient times is shown in the historical history of Bitinya (Bithynia) region which includes Bilecik. The ancient city of Bitinya was known as BC. It started with Thynler, who lived in Thrace in the 1950s. The region then moved to Egypt, Hittite, Phrygian, Kimmer, Lydia, Persia, Macedonia, Kingdom of Bithynia, Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Empire. The first known name of Bilecik is Belekoma.
Bilecik is the scene of civilization and sovereignty of many peoples in history. It is the place where Kayı Boyu came with 400 tents from Central Asia and made the foundation of Ottoman Empire in Söğüt. In addition to the privilege of the history of the city and the place where the Ottoman Empire was founded, it has also played an important role in the foundation of the Republic with the fierce struggles and victories won in the War of Independence. Most of the historical artifacts in Bilecik, where there are many archaeological and historical monuments, constitute mosques, tombs, inns, baths, examples of civil architecture, imaret and similar buildings built during the Ottoman period.
Many of the Turkish and foreign visitors come to the ın Ertuğrul Gazi ve Commemoration and Söğüt Festivals, which are celebrated with the ceremonial ceremonies held every year (the last three days of the second week of September). At the ceremonies, the henna night and experiences of the nomads are played, and the javelin shows are performed.
Bilecik in History:
The first settlement in -Bilecik coincides with earlier than 3000 BC. It is known that in the 3000s BC, Bilecik was an important place in the transition to the Bronze Age. The oldest known names were Agrilion and Agrillum. Later on, Bilecik became a settlement which entered the borders of the Byzantine Empire. In the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) period, the city was called Belekoma. Bilecik was built around a castle built on a rock ledge between the valleys formed by the Hamsu and Tabakhane streams.
-In the Ancient Age Bilecik:
There is no specific information about Bilecik in ancient times. For this reason, the city’s life in this age is shown in the history of the history of Bitinya (Bithynia), which includes Bilecik.
-Bitinya region known history of
the Thracians who lived here in the 1950s in the Thrace began with the tribes.
After the chronological order: 1550-1400 Egyptians, 1400-1200 BC Hittites,
1200-676 Phrygians, 676-595 Kimmerler, 595- 546 Lydians, 546-334 Persians,
334-326 Macedonians, 326-297 Liberation period, 297-74 Kingdom of Bithynia,
74-395 Roman Empire, 395-1299 Byzantine (dominance of Umayyad and Abbasids
during 673-678 and 714-718) period.
Bilecik in the period of Bizans:
When the Roman Empire was divided into two in 395 AD, the Bitinya Region and Bilecik remained within the boundaries of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) empire. Belekoma Castle was built in Bilecik during the Byzantine period. Bilecik was a Tekfurluk in the Byzantine period. During the reign of the Abbasid Caliph Harun Rashid (in 797), like the other cities of the Bitinya region, Bilecik and Sogut were also conquered and entered into the Abbasid administration. The city of Belekoma, which is protected by the castle, has changed hands several times between the Byzantines-Umayyads and the Byzantines-Abbasids.
Bilecik during the Seljuk period
One part of the Kayaks, a part of the Seljuks (an oba of 400 tents), moved to the west and moved to Söğüt and to the west by Ertuğrul Bey.
The Ottoman period-i namas are shown in the 1230s as the settlement date of the Kayılar Söğüt and its surroundings. When the Emperor of İznik raped the Seljuk border in 1231, the Seljuk Sultan I. Aleaddin Keykubat organized an expedition against the Byzantines and Ertuğrul Bey had joined the expedition. The Byzantine army was defeated as a result of the war between the Seljuk and Byzantine armies in the Sultanönü region and the Karacadağ and Söğüt lands were captured by the Great Seljuk State. I. Aleaddin Keykubat has linked the taxa of Belekoma (Bilecik) to tax. Ertuğrul Bey, who showed great benefits in the war, gave Söğüt the property and Domaniç as a spring.
According to the Ottoman sources, Ertuğrul Bey died in 1281. The mausoleum is located in Söğüt and is known with the Ertuğrul Gazi Festivities held in Söğüt every year.
Ertuğrul Bey is a valuable leader of the Kayı Turks. Kayı is the founder of the Ottoman Empire. Thus, a State was born of 400 tents, which were rooted in Söğüt and around it.
– Bilecik in the Ottoman Empire
After the death of Ertuğrul Gazi, Osman Bey was the head of the rocks. Osman Bey and his fellow fighters fought against Byzantium and gained success in these wars. Shaykh Edebali had played a great role in these achievements.
-He was Seykh Edebali Ahi. Ahi;
It was an exemplary conception of the organization that encouraged the public,
employees, all the brothers and sisters of all crafts, including agriculture,
and extended all the help to the employees, and was the leader of the Faq Sheikh
Edebali Kayı Akis. Sheikh Edebali was sitting in the village of Iburnu at the
time. Later on, he transferred his madrasah to Willow and finally to Bilecik.
-Osman Bey captured the fortress of Hisarcık near İnegöl in 1286 from the Byzantines. In 1287, he defeated the Inegol Companion in Domino, near Ikizce (Erice).
– Sultan Seljuk Sultan and his comrades-in-arms of Byzantine Bey and his comrades in war with the Byzantine Empires III. Alaeddin Keykubat with a large army came in front of Karacahisar. By joining forces with Osman Bey, Byzantine besieged this fortress. During the siege, the Seljuk Sultan returned. He gave Osman Osman a sancak, brigade and a silver-studded horse to take the flag to Söğüt and Eskişehir. Turning the Greek church in Karacahisar into a mosque, Osman Bey sliced his first sermon (1289). These events are considered as the first signs of the foundation of the Ottoman Empire. At that time, Bilecik was not yet conquered by the Turks. It was a city belonging to the Byzantines. Bilecik (Belekoma) and Yarhisar were linked to taxes. Osman Bey conquered the fortress of Belekoma in the summer of 1299 and the fortress of Yarhisar.
-Bilecik, Yildirim Bayezid period remained until the Ottoman administration, but in 1402 in the battle against Ankara Bayezid Timur’a defeat of Timur and 2 months as a result of the defeat of Timur was taken back by Çelebi Sultan Mehmet.
– After this date, Bilecik gradually developed during the Ottoman administration, however, the lack of suitable space for the settlement of the city was prevented from developing faster. However, Bilecik has maintained its importance as an important accommodation and resting place on the road from Bursa and İznik to Eskişehir and Anatolia.
-Bilecik was established on the Istanbul-Baghdad railway side that connects Thrace and Marmara regions with the Central, South and Southeast Anatolia regions to the Front Asia. The city center is thought to be a small place during the Roman and Byzantine times. It has gained importance after the hands of the Turks. The fact that Osman Gazi was the first important fortress to be conquered and the Tomb of Sheikh Edebali was here increased the interest in the city.
-The pre-built city around the castle then began to grow towards the Şeyh Edebali Tomb, the Orhan Gazi Mosque and the madrasa nearby. After the city moved to Turkish domination, Turks and Greeks lived in different neighborhoods. For example, the Turks were mostly settled around Osman Gazi, Orhan Gazi and Lower Mosques, and the Greeks concentrated in the area of Bilecik. In time, social and economic relations between societies have been established, the tendency of the two communities to settle in separate neighborhoods has disappeared, the state structures have been made to the Upper Neighborhood and the city has developed towards the present settlement.
Bilecik in the War of Independence:
T.B.M.M. In order to resolve the conflict between the government and the government in Istanbul, the Minister of Internal Affairs Ahmet İzzet Pasha, in the name of the Tevfik Pasha government in Istanbul, wanted to meet with the Government of Ankara. The meeting was scheduled to take place in Bilecik Station.
The delegations met on December 5, 1920 in Bilecik Station. The Istanbul delegation consisted of Ahmet Izzet Pasha, Salih Pasha, Cevat Bey, one of the ambassadors, Kazim Bey, Minister of Agriculture, Münir Bey, Legal Advisor, and Fatih Efendi. Mustafa Kemal Pasha headed the Ankara delegation. The delegation included İsmet Bey (İnönü). A positive and concrete result could not be obtained from Bilecik Interview.
On 6 January 1921, the Greek army attacked Bursa and Uşak. On the evening of January 8, 1921, Bilecik-Karaköy-Muratdere came to the line. Bilecik was thus occupied (Bilecik’s first occupation by the Greeks).
– The War of Independence:
The battle of İnönü was entirely on the territory of Bilecik. Akpınar, Oklubalı positions bloody collisions in the chest. The Greek army, defeated in a row, began to retreat. In fact, on January 11, 1921, they first attacked Zevvare Tepe, Tepeköy, Oluklu, Rizapasa, Poyra, Beshkardes Mountains, Zemzemiye and Bursa. Bilecik’s first occupation lasted only 4 days between 8-11 January 1921.
II. İnönü War:
II. On 23 March 1921, the Inonu War started on the Greek Army’s offensive from the Bursa-Usak region and passed on the territory of Bilecik.
The Turkish forces led by Colonel İsmet Bey met the Greek troops on the Bilecik-Pazaryeri and İnegöl lines and on the 26th of March they fought in the main positions formed by Söğüt-Gündüzbey road, Yazıahlat-Karaköy railway and west of Bozüyük-Karasu line.
Bloody clashes took place in the Hill of Hill, Zevvare Tepe and Nazımbey. Y
– Bilecik in the Republic Period:
Thus, the Bilecik Liberation War took a very big wounds, and the social and economic collapse caused by the war has begun very weak.
Bilecik people participated in the War of Independence with all its existence, and gave tens of thousands of sons to the militia forces and our regular armies. Bilecik was burnt-demolished from the War of Independence. The population of the city, estimated to be 12,000 in the 1920s, fell to 4,000 after the war.
– Before the war, Bilecik was the most important center of the silk industry. There were many silversmiths and silk velvet factories in the city. However, all of these factories and facilities were burned in the revenge fires of the Greeks. Meanwhile, the burnout of other factories and workplaces has collapsed the provincial economy.
History, Cultural, Archaeological and Touristic Areas
– Partial studies on the historical, cultural and archaeological sites within the capital have been made and the works to be carried out are under the control of the Ministry of Culture. In addition, as a new initiative, the establishment of the old Bilecik settlement, according to the photographs, 1200 houses, 7 mosques, Turkish baths, caravansaries and other social facilities known to exist in this region have been rebuilt and Bilecik ‘s old identity has been restored. it is disclosed.